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A review of arsenic induced alternation in aquatic animals or mammals by its toxicity

Mohamed Ebrahim*, Hina Ayub

This study evaluated the developmental and behavioral effects of long-term arsenite exposure in animals. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to study the effect of arsenic trioxide on the nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity, nephrotoxicity etc. An attempt is made to observe effect of arsenic, based on an extensive literature research with special emphasis on the most recent works. Arsenic is a carcinogen to both humans and animals. Arsenicals have been associated with cancers of the skin, lung, and bladder. Arsenic is classified as a metalloid, and exhibits both metallic and nonmetallic properties. It is present in ores and crustal rocks at average concentrations. It exhibits a complex chemistry, occurring in four different valencies (-III, O, III and V) and in many different chemical forms, these being used for a wide variety of industrial and agricultural purposes.

Arsenous Oxide (As2O3) is the most important arsenic compound employed by industry, and is used to synthesize various other inorganic and organic’s arsenicals. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption occurs from skin contact and inhalation. Acute arsenic poisoning is associated initially with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and severe diarrhoea, and peripheral neuropathy are reported. Chronic arsenic toxicity results in multisystem disease. It is known that as can affect signaling pathways since it can activate proteins such as ERK2, p38 and JNK, as shown in mammals. A comparison between phosphorylation sites of these proteins is presented in order to determine whether the same effect triggered by as in mammals might be observed in aquatic animals.

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