By maintaining nutrient cycles and acting as home for a variety of creatures, forests perform crucial ecological tasks. Additionally, they provide ecosystem services including carbon storage, erosion control, and the provision of valuable commodities like wood. Trees must adapt to their setting with many artificial and natural sources of stress. Long-lived tree species place a premium on resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic challenges. Due to the fact that trees can live for many years, if not centuries, in the same place, they must adapt their development and reproduction to the continuously shifting pedospheric and atmospheric circumstances. We sought contributions for this special issue that addressed the physiological reactions of forest trees to a variety of diverse stressors. Seventeen of the eighteen publications that were published discussed salt stress or drought as significant environmental cues, demonstrating the topic's significance in the face of climate change. Cold stress was only examined in one publication. The necessity to comprehend tree responses to these environmental hazards from the molecular to the ecosystem level is supported by the prevalence of studies on drought and salt stress environmental biology. The papers that make up this issue explore these scientific topics in various parts of the world and include both conifer and broadleaf tree species. Additionally, bamboo is the subject of two research. Although technically a grass, bamboo was included since it serves comparable ecological purposes and has similar uses to trees.